It is important to keep in mind that many transmen in Europe undergo an oophorectomy within 12—18 months of initiation of hormonal treatment. In transmen, published case reports describe cancers of the breast, ovaries, cervix, vagina, and endometrium 17183435444564 — In addition, concerns about cancer risk in transgender patients have been linked to sexually transmitted infections, increased exposure to well-known risk factors such as smoking and alcohol use, and the lack of adequate access to screening. In 4 cases, hormonal therapy included cyproterone acetate, and all patients presented with highly elevated prolactin levels. Open in a separate window.
Breast cancer in female-to-male transsexuals:
Cancer in Transgender People: Evidence and Methodological Considerations
The take-home points from the review are: Observational methods to assess the effectiveness of screening colonoscopy in reducing right colon cancer mortality risk: Cases of presumably hormone-related malignancies in transwomen diagnosed after the initiation of medical or surgical gender affirmation include carcinomas of the breast and prostate, prolactinomas, and meningiomas 1638 — Triple negative breast cancer in a male-to-female transsexual. Importance of revealing a rare case of breast cancer in a female to male transsexual after bilateral mastectomy.
The main limitation of the existing data is the very small size of the available studies and the very few events of interest. In the second cross-sectional studytranswomen and transmen who had at least 3 months of cross-sex hormone therapy between and were each age matched to 6 controls, 3 nontransgender males and 3 nontransgender females. Breast Cancer Res Treat. Epidemiologic studies were described with respect to the source and location of the population, sample sizes of transmen and transwomen, and measures of cancer occurrence e. Genetic susceptibility to prostate, breast, and colorectal cancer among Nordic twins. Breast cancer in transwomen High-dose exogenous cross-sex estrogens and androgen antagonists stimulate the formation of breast lobules, ducts, and acini histologically identical to those of biological females